You start by opening the fruit bowl file from the Shader Basics lesson. .
Open the File
1. From the file menu, select Open Scene
2. Double click on the file you created in the previous lesson (myfruitbowl2).
Turn on Hardware Texturing
1. In Maya, click in the perspective window to make it active,
then press the space bar to bring up the marking menus.
2. Click on the Shading menu and select Hardware Texturing.
This will turn on interactive texturing, so that you can view your textures in
the perspective window.
Creating a projection map
In this section, a planar projection map is used on the apple. A planar projection places the texture on a separate Surface Placement object instead of the object itself. The placement object can be transformed in 3D space until the texture is properly "projected".
When you use projection maps, you can ignore the seam that was created when
the apple was built. and apply the texture evenly over the whole surface.
Open the multilister and the shader editor
1. Select Window->Multi-lister. The multilister contains the shaders
created in lesson 10.
2. Double-click on the AppleSG shader icon to open the Attributes editor.
Open the color-map window
3. In the attributes editor, click on the map button next to color. Note: The texture selection window is displayed
4. Under 2D textures, click the "As Projection" icon, which specifies that this shader will be a projection map.
5. Click on the Ramp button under 2D Textures to create a
Edit the ramp texture.
6. Select CIRCULAR RAMP as the Ramp type to apply the color in a circular
manner, and change the interpolation to BUMP to get a smooth transition
between the ramp colors
Change the colors of the ramp
You only need two colors for this particular texture.
1. Click on the X next to the blue color to delete it. This leaves only
red and green.
2. Slide the red to the top of the ramp by grabbing the red circular handle and sliding it to the top, and the green to the bottom of the ramp.
3. To edit the green, click the circular handle, then
click in the green
color sample, beside RAMP COLOR to open the Color editor.
4. Change this color to a greenish yellow by changing the HSV values:
60 for Hue(H), 0.675 for Saturation(S), and 0.725 for Value(V).
5. Close the color editor before proceeding.
Add bruising to the apple by adding noise.
You can make the apple appear more realistic by adding surface discoloration.
1. In the Ramp Texture Attributes section of the editor, change the Noise
value to 0.1
2. Open the HSV Color Noise section of the Ramp editor.
3. Change Val Noise to 0.1 to add a slight, realistic bruising to the apple.
Positioning the Projection Map
1. Close the ramp editor, but leave the Multilister open.
2. Double-click on the projection1 texture to open the Attribute editor.
3. Double-click on the place3dTexture2 tab, to edit the projection's
4. To position the projection map, enter in the coordinates for the
translate box 0.4757, 0.2254, 1.8734. For the Scale box enter in the
coordinates 1.5602, 1.5602, 1.6751.
Note: it is also possible to interactively
scale the projection box,
by selecting it within Maya, and then move it and scale it into
place, just like you would with any other object.
6. Once the projection box is moved into place, then
deselect all of the
Next, you will modify the Banana shader by adding a color ramp to make the banana ends black. In this example, however, you place the texture with surface mapping. This means that the texture is "stretched" around the banana surface, instead of being "projected" onto it.
Edit the Banana's shader
1. In the multilister, double click the BananaSG shader to open the Shader editor.
2. Click the Map.. button next to the Color sample to open the Texture
3. Make sure that under the 2D Textures section that the Normal button is
selected, and not the As projection button.
4. Click the Ramp button to create a ramp texture. The Multilister window
now displays a Ramp#2 icon under the texture section.
5. In the Attribute Editor click on the ramp2 tab, and you should now see
the parameters associated with the ramp.
6. Change the Ramp type to U RAMP, and the Interpolation to smooth.
7. Click on the circular handle that defines the position for the red
handle, then click on the color sample to open the color editor.
8. Change the HSV values as follows: Hue to 0, Sat to 0, Value to 0.
Leave the color editor open.
9. In the Ramp editor, click the circular handle for blue and set the same
values in the color editor to change it to Black.
10. Click on the circular handle for Green, and change its value to 47 for
Hue, 0.725 for Sat, and 1 for Val.
You Attribute Editor should now look like this:
Add Noise to the Ramp
1. Change the Noise parameter of the Ramp texture to 0.05.
2. Close the color editor and the Ramp editor.
Placing a Displacement Map the Orange
Next, you apply a displacement map to create a bumpy surface for the orange. The orange currently uses a smooth orange-colored shader. The displacement
map forms a bumpy pattern on its surface without effecting the color.
Import the Displacement Map
1. A displacement shader has already been created, so the texture must
be imported into the Multilister.
From the Multilister, select File->Import->Texture/Material/
2. In the Import Dialog, type in the path
/home/cse458/Tutorials/texture/bumpyOrange and then press the
3. Open the Attribute Editor for the OrangeSG shading group by
double-clicking the OrangeSG icon.
4. Click on the OrangSG tab to make it active.
5. Under the Shading Group Attributes menu, type bumpyOrange into the
textbox next to Displacement Material. This will place the bumpyOrange
texture as the Displacement material for the orange.
Bump Map the Bowl
Although bump mapping changes the appearance of an object's surface, it modifies the surface normals of an object without actually modifying the
surface. Bump-mapping affects how light reflects for a surface, creating the illusion of bumps by making surface areas lighter or darker, depending on the
direction surface normals are pointing in. The easiest way to see this difference would be to render a displacement mapped object and a bump mapped
object side by side. You would notice that the surface edges of the bump map are not bumpy while the displacement map has bumps at the edges. In certain
situations, the illusion created by a bump map is all that is required. Since bump mapped surfaces render quickly, you should use them instead of
displacement maps whenever possible.
Change the shaders Ray Trace parameters
1. Double-click the BowlSG icon to bring up the attribute editor.
2. In the Attribute editor, click on the Ray trace options tab to
drop down the Ray tracing options.
3. Change the Refractive Index to 1.2, the Refraction Limit to 10, and
the Reflect Limit to 4.
Add a bump map to the Bowl
1. A bump map has already been created, so the texture must
be imported into the Multilister. From the Multilister, select
2. In the Import Dialog, type in the path
/home/cse458/Tutorials/Lesson11/texture/bumpyBowl and then press the
3. Open the Attribute Editor for the BowlSG shading group by
double-clicking the BowlSG icon.
4. Under the Shading Group Attributes menu, type bumpyBowl into the
textbox next to Bump Mapping. This will place the bumpyBowl
texture as the bump map for the bowl. You Attribute Editor should
now look like the following:
Solid Texture map the table
In this section , you give the table a solid Marble texture to the table.
Solid textures differ from surface textures because they define a 3D texture
space in which an object is located. In effect, objects are "carved" out of
the material of the solid texture. In the following, you create a shader that
works almost as if the table were chiseled out of a piece of marble. To achieve
a similar effect with surface textures, you would have to distort the texture
perfectly around the corners following the objects surface. Since this is very
difficult to do with a surface map, you use a solid texture.
Apply a solid texture to the table
1. In the Multilister, select the Table shader.
2. Click the Map... button next to Color in the Common Material Attributes
section of the editor.
3. Under the 3D textures section, select Marble.
4. Change the filler color to have a Hue value of 110, Sat 0.5, and Value
5. Change the vein color to have a value for Hue of 80, Sat 0.5, and Value
6. Under the noise attributes section, change the amplitude to 2.0.
Open Maya and Pick the Texture Placement object
1. Inside of Maya, select the texture placement object.
2. With the texture placement box selected, inside the channel box, scale
the object by 3 in both the X, Y, and Z directions.
3. Now with the texture placement object still selected, rotate the object
by 45 in both the X, Y, and Z, directions. This creates an interesting
relationship between the placement objects and the table top. Now the
veins of the marble texture should flow along the table.
Render your scene
1. Press F5 to go to the Rendering menu set. Select Render->Render into new window to see a finished render of your texture mapped image.
Save the file
1. Close the Render window and from the file menu, select Save scene as. Save the scene as myfruitbowl3.