The Dynamic Window Approach to Collision Avoidance
|Title||The Dynamic Window Approach to Collision Avoidance|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1997|
|Authors||Fox D, Burgard W, Thrun S|
|Journal||IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine|
This paper describes the dynamic window approach to reactive collision avoidance for mobile robots equipped with synchro-drives. The approach is derived directly from the motion dynamics of the robot and is therefore particularly well-suited for robots operating at high speed. It differs from previous approaches in that the search for commands controlling the translational and rotational velocity of the robot is carried out directly in the space of velocities. The advantage of our approach is that it correctly and in an elegant way incorporates the dynamics of the robot. This is done by reducing the search space to the dynamic window, which consists of the velocities reachable within a short time interval. Within the dynamic window the approach only considers admissible velocities yielding a trajectory on which the robot is able to stop safely. Among these velocities the combination of translational and rotational velocity is chosen by maximizing an objective function. The objective function includes a measure of progress towards a goal location, the forward velocity of the robot, and the distance to the next obstacle on the trajectory. In extensive experiments the approach presented here has been found to safely control our mobile robot RHINO with speeds of up to 95 cm/sec, in populated and dynamic environments.