TitleComputerized writing and reading instruction for students in grades 4 to 9 with specific learning disabilities affecting written language.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsTanimoto S, Thompson R., Berninger V., Nagy W., Abbott R.
JournalJournal of Computer Assisted Learning
Start Page671
Date or Month PublishedDecember
Type of Articleresearch contribution
KeywordsApple iPad, Computer-assisted instruction, dysgraphia, HAWK, learning disability, literacy, writing instruction
AbstractComputer scientists and educational researchers evaluated effectiveness of computerized instruction tailored to evidence-based impairments in specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in students in grades 4 to 9 with persisting SLDs despite prior extra help. Following comprehensive, evidence-based differential diagnosis for dysgraphia (impaired handwriting), dyslexia (impaired word reading and spelling), and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD), students completed 18 sessions of computerized instruction over about 3 months. The 11 students taught letter formation with sequential, numbered, colored arrow cues with full contours who wrote letters on lines added to iPAD screen showed more and stronger treatment effects than the 21 students taught using only visual motion cues for letter formation who wrote on an unlined computer monitor. Teaching to all levels of language in multiple functional language systems (by ear, eye, mouth, and hand) close in time resulted in significant gains in reading and writing skills for the group and in diagnosed SLD hallmark impairments for individuals; also, performance on computerized learning activities correlated with treatment gains. Results are discussed in reference to need for both accommodations and explicit instruction for persisting SLDs and the potential for computers to teach handwriting, morphophonemic orthographies, comprehension, and composition.
Citation Key12192