TitleEffective instruction for persisting dyslexia in upper grades: Adding hope stories and computer coding to explicit literacy instruction
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsThompson R, Tanimoto S, Lyman RDawn, Geselowitz K, Begay KKawena, Nielsen K, Nagy W, Abbott R, Raskind M, Berninger V
JournalEducation and information technologies
KeywordsAnalysis, Article, Care and treatment, Computer Appl. in Social and Behavioral Sciences, Computer-assisted instruction, Computer assisted instruction–CAI, computer coding instruction, computerized writing instruction, Computers and Education, computer science, Dyslexia, education, educational technology, Elementary school students, general, hope themes, Information Systems Applications (incl.Internet), Methods, mode of sentence presentation during reading comprehension, Reading comprehension, Reading instruction, User Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction, writing instruction
AbstractChildren in grades 4 to 6 ( N  = 14) who despite early intervention had persisting dyslexia (impaired word reading and spelling) were assessed before and after computerized reading and writing instruction aimed at subword, word, and syntax skills shown in four prior studies to be effective for treating dyslexia. During the 12 two-hour sessions once a week after school they first completed HAWK Letters in Motion© for manuscript and cursive handwriting, HAWK Words in Motion© for phonological, orthographic, and morphological coding for word reading and spelling, and HAWK Minds in Motion© for sentence reading comprehension and written sentence composing. A reading comprehension activity in which sentences were presented one word at a time or one added word at a time was introduced. Next, to instill hope they could overcome their struggles with reading and spelling, they read and discussed stories about struggles of Buckminister Fuller who overcame early disabilities to make important contributions to society. Finally, they engaged in the new Kokopelli’s World (KW)©, blocks-based online lessons, to learn computer coding in introductory programming by creating stories in sentence blocks (Thompson and Tanimoto 2016 ). Participants improved significantly in hallmark word decoding and spelling deficits of dyslexia, three syntax skills (oral construction, listening comprehension, and written composing), reading comprehension (with decoding as covariate), handwriting, orthographic and morphological coding, orthographic loop, and inhibition (focused attention). They answered more reading comprehension questions correctly when they had read sentences presented one word at a time (eliminating both regressions out and regressions in during saccades) than when presented one added word at a time (eliminating only regressions out during saccades). Indicators of improved self-efficacy that they could learn to read and write were observed. Reminders to pay attention and stay on task needed before adding computer coding were not needed after computer coding was added.
Citation KeyThompsonRobert2017Eifp